My favourite images taken through my telescopes and microscopes to date.
Firstly, an explanation about what is happening below:
Movement of chloroplasts around the cell is called cyclosis or cytoplasmic streaming. Other organelles such as mitochondria are also streaming, along with the chloroplasts. This movement is on intracellular tracks called microfilaments, composed of actin proteins. The organelles are attached to the actin filaments by myosin, a motor protein. These proteins transform the chemical energy in ATP into mechanical energy leading to change in protein conformation and the protein molecule “walks” down the actin filament.
In leaf cells under bright sunlight, chloroplasts may have the ability to “move into the shade” of other chloroplasts, called photorelocation. Chloroplasts gather in areas irradiated with weak light to maximize photosynthesis (the accumulation response), and move away from areas irradiated with strong light to minimize damage of the photosynthetic apparatus (the avoidance response). The processes underlying these chloroplast movements can be divided into three parts: photoperception, signal transduction, and chloroplast movement.
x100 oil objective:
Following are photos from sap coming out of cut end of house plant leaf.
Zeiss IM microscope.
x32 objective, Optovar x1 intermediate lens:
x63 objective, Optovar x1 intermediate lens:
x63 objective, Optovar x2 intermediate lens, some sharpening with unsharp mask in GIMP2:
x63 objective, Optovar x2 intermediate lens, further contrast and brightness enhanced in GIMP2:
The following photos are from water under bulb in jar in kitchen (growing in jar of water to stimulate root growth).
Zeiss IM microscope.
x4 objective photo showing some algae growing in water – it is exposed to sun on window sill:
Video also x4 objective:
Elodea is a genus of 6 species of aquatic plants often called the waterweeds described as a genus in 1803. Elodea is native to North and South America and is also widely used as aquarium vegetation. It lives in fresh water (Wikipedia). Chloroplasts can move in all plants but are particularly visible in Elodea.
I used my Leitz Laborlux 11 microscope today to view a thin slice of Elodea leaf with a bright light from the side to stimulate movement.
Video of chloroplast movement in Elodea, Leitz Laborlux 11 microscope, 40x objective:
Video of chloroplast movement in Elodea, Leitz Laborlux 11 microscope, 100x objective:
In the next photo, look carefully – there are many tiny organelles visible apart from the more obvious chloroplasts: