Leitz Laborlux 11 microscope

Microscopy of Elodea pond weed, showing chloroplast and organelle movement 10/12/2019

Bright field

Live, unstained/unfixed

Andy

Firstly, an explanation about what is happening below:

From https://www.howplantswork.com/2010/04/25/chloroplast-movement-in-plant-cells-stirring-the-pot-avoiding-the-sun/

Movement of chloroplasts around the cell is called cyclosis or cytoplasmic streaming. Other organelles such as mitochondria are also streaming, along with the chloroplasts. This movement is on intracellular tracks called microfilaments, composed of actin proteins. The organelles are attached to the actin filaments by myosin, a motor protein. These proteins transform the chemical energy in ATP into mechanical energy leading to change in protein conformation and the protein molecule “walks” down the actin filament.

In leaf cells under bright sunlight, chloroplasts may have the ability to “move into the shade” of other chloroplasts, called photorelocation. Chloroplasts gather in areas irradiated with weak light to maximize photosynthesis (the accumulation response), and move away from areas irradiated with strong light to minimize damage of the photosynthetic apparatus (the avoidance response). The processes underlying these chloroplast movements can be divided into three parts: photoperception, signal transduction, and chloroplast movement.

Photos:

x40 objective:

x100 oil objective:      

Video:

x40 objective:

x100 oil objective:

Fish fin Mikrocam 5-0 Leitz Laborlux 11 011219-0005.png

Unprocessed, unstained photos of section of fish fin from Sea Bass.

Black and yellow pigment is visible – as magnification increases it can be seen that the pigment is not neatly laid out but looks almost as though someone has thrown ink out of end of pen onto the fin! Pigment is produced by pigment-producing cells so this must reflect the distribution of those cells in the fin.

Andy

x4 objective:

x10 objective:

x20 objective:

x40 objective:

Wild Sea Bass Fish scale x20 objective Mikrocam 5-0 Leitz Laborlux 11 011219

These are unstained, unprocessed images, contrast improved using the condensor on the microscope rather than processing.
I presume the grooves enable better water flow around the fish so that it swims more effectively and efficiently. A scale is made of dead skin cells but I don’t know how big those initial cells were and hence what sort of scale the cellular size is in this image.
Taking these photos encouraged me to start researching fish scales online – there is a massive amount of information and it is interesting to see how it matches the photos I have taken here!
Andy

Microscopy of fungus from plant pot in kitchen 9/12/2018 – Leitz Laborlux 11, Bresser Mikrocam SP5.1 camera, oil immersion objective

This fungus was growing on the earth around the base of the plant in a plant pot in our kitchen in Lichfield. Interconnecting hypae can be seen but the stand-out difference between these photos and those of fungus on bread and cheese I have posted in past is the lack of spores.

  • Leitz Laborlux 11 microscope.
  • Magnification 10-100x objectives. The 100x objective was oil immersion and I could not find the proper oil so used extra virgin olive oil as my immersion oil!

Andy

x10 objective:

SIngle hyphus:

Branching hyphae matrix:

x40 objective:

x100 oil immersion objective, using virgin olive oil as immersion oil (as I could not find the proper immersion oil bottle!):

Sructures at edge of algae from pot pond

The following two photos show structures on edge of an algal strand from my pot pond – not sure if these are part of algae or other organisms which are using it as a platform to base themselves….

  • Leitz Laborlux 11 Microsocope
  • x40 objective
  • Bright field
  • DCM-310 Camera for Microscope.
  • ScopePhoto 64 bit software
  • GIMP2 post-processing.

Andy

Microscopy of sample from bottom of pot pond 11/11/2018

For last few months, I have been cultivating a “pond” in a large pot in my garden.

The following photos are taken from a sample from the bottom of this pond today, using my Leitz Laborlux 11 microscope and Bresser Microcam SP 5.1 camera, with x4, x10, x40 objectives.

The photos and video below are all based around highly magnified microscopy of the antennae/legs of a small 2-3mm crustacean I found in the sample. In particular, I focus on other animal life (single and multicellular) living on or around these structures.

Obj = microscope objective power.

Andy

Detail-crustacean-pot-pond-Leitz-Laborlux-11-x4-obj-111118:

See the small group of oval objects attached to the antenna on the right – I think this is a group of other organisms using the crustacean as a platform!

On the other two legs visible, note the nodular structure to the chiton exoskeleton. Plenty of hairs to be seen projecting from legs and antenna.

Those group of oval organisms are seen attached to the antenna at bottom of photo below (photo & video):

Antenna (below):

 

Detail-crustacean-pot-pond-Leitz-Laborlux-11-x10-obj-111118:

   Detail-crustacean-pot-pond-Leitz-Laborlux-11-x40-obj-111118:

These images show close ups of where the hairs arise from the chiton exoskeleton of the legs.

Rolling ball cells pot pond Leitz Laborlux 11 x10 obj 111118 (below):

Rolling ball cells pot pond Leitz Laborlux 11 x40 obj 111118 (photo and video):

Worm pot pond Leitz Laborlux 11 x4 obj 111118 (below, photos & video):

Worm pot pond Leitz Laborlux 11 x10 obj 111118 (below, photos & video):

 

Chloroplast movement in Elodea 11/11/2018

Elodea is a genus of 6 species of aquatic plants often called the waterweeds described as a genus in 1803. Elodea is native to North and South America and is also widely used as aquarium vegetation. It lives in fresh water (Wikipedia). Chloroplasts can move in all plants but are particularly visible in Elodea.

I used my Leitz Laborlux 11 microscope today to view a thin slice of Elodea leaf  with a bright light from the side to stimulate movement.

Andy

Video of chloroplast movement in Elodea, Leitz Laborlux 11 microscope, 40x objective:

 

Video of chloroplast movement in Elodea, Leitz Laborlux 11 microscope, 100x objective:

Photos:

x40 objective:

In the next photo, look carefully – there are many tiny organelles visible apart from the more obvious chloroplasts:

x100 objective:

Microscopy of sheep’s brain, retina and optic nerve 3/11/2018

We dissected a sheep’s head today and prepared simple slides of brain, retina and optic nerve, and then viewed these with my Leitz Laborlux 11 microscope using x4, x10, and x40 objectives.

Andy

Dissecting sheep’s head:

The brain of the sheep can be seen just before removal.

Brain unstained slides, x4 objective:

The red streaks are blood vessels – note these are all unstinted sections.

Brain unstained x10 objective:

These sections were all made by using scalpel to cut thin section by eye and then squashing it on slide with some water based mountant using a cover slip. They are therefore quite thick.

 

Brain x40 objective: 

Optic nerve, unstained, x4 objective:

Optic nerve, unstained, x10 objective:

Optic nerve, unstained, x40 objective:

In the section below, looks as though an axon (projection from a nerve) has been pulled out – long worm-like structure.

Likewise, in the slide below, there appear to multiple coiled structures which I suspect are axons.

Retina, unstained, x4 objective (below):

Retina, unstained, x10 objective:

There appears to cells on stalks – are these neural connections to retinal cells?

Note the heavy pigment of the retina – black – it absorbs all light.

Retina, unstained, x40 objective:

   

Microscopy of sample from beach at Bognor Regis 2/11/2018

I bought back to Lichfield a sample of water/material from the beach at Bognor Regis and today looked at this under my Leitz Laborlux 11 microscope.

Andy

Small piece of red algal seaweed.

These are most probably Red Algae, or Rhodophyta. From Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_algae), Rodophyta means ‘rose plant’. The Rhodophyta also comprises one of the largest phyla of algae, containing over 7,000 currently recognized species . The majority of species (6,793) are found in the Florideophyceae (class), and mostly consist of multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. Approximately 5% of the red algae occur in freshwater environments with greater concentrations found in the warmer area. There are no terrestrial species, which is assumed to be traced back to an evolutionary bottleneck where the last common ancestor lost about 25% of its core genes and much of its evolutionary plasticity.
The red algae form a distinct group characterized by having eukaryotic cells without flagella and centrioles, chloroplasts that lack external endoplasmic reticulum and contain unstacked (stoma) thylakoids, and use phycobiliproteins as accessory pigments, which give them their red color. Red algae store sugars as floridean starch, which is a type of starch that consists of highly branched amylopectin without amylose, as food reserves outside their plastids. Most red algae are also multicellular, macroscopic, marine, and reproduce sexually. The red algal life history is typically an alternation of generations that may have three generations rather than two.

See also https://www.countrylife.co.uk/nature/a-simple-guide-to-british-seaweed-how-to-spot-it-how-to-cook-it-159632 for simple guide to UK seaweeds.

x4 objective showing the tendrils of seaweed – individual cells are seen:

x10 objective – the individual cells now look like bones in the hand:

x40 objective showing structure in an individual cell – cell wall surrounds the cell and their are clear differences between the terminal ends of the cell and its middle part:

Sediment at bottom of pool in sand adjacent to wooden structure on shore.

x10 objective showing sand grains with some attached green algal growth:

x10 objective showing plant matter on top of sand grain:

x40 objective showing  green algal seaweed attached to edge of sand grain:

x40 objective showing microscopic algal plant matter on a sand grain:

x40 objective – close up of green algal free floating plant cell pairing: