A Full Moon…

Away in Wales at the moment and regretting not bringing a scope (this wold have been so much better); but here’s a picture of tonight’s full moon taken through a 300mm zoom lens. A bit of a crop, but no other editing- the reddish colour is a reflection of the sunset.

Looks good through the 12×70 binoculars as well!

Rob Leonard

Polarising objectives for LOMO Polam P-113

Another ebay bargain – 7 pristine polarising LOMO objectives – scary ordering these as posted from Russia and I wondered if they would turn up…..

But when they did, each lens was carefully wrapped in a small piece of bubble wrap and the whole box carefully packed in another box – subtlety unlike the Americans who I have found wrap everything in a solar system’s worth of bubble wrap!!!!


The “new” (second hand) LOMO Polarising objectives:

My existing LOMO Polam P-113 Polarising microscope on which I am using these new lenses:

Bright field vs. crossed polarisation views of microscope slide of material from LRO pot pond 28/5/2018

I used the centrifuge to concentrate down material from “open water” in the pot pond (i.e. not near edge or bottom or plants) and views the result in the LOMO Polam P-113 microscope, by bright field & crossed polarisation.

Note that such open water samples do not contain diatoms – which are famously birefringent.


Birefringement material pot pond slide 280518@1642, x20 objective:

Birefringent material slide from pot pond 280518@1703, x20 objective:

Insect on slide pot pond water 280518@1626 panorama, x20 objective:

Slide from pot pond: birefringent material shown in sequence as I moved the second polarised filter from 0-90 degrees so that the sample moved between crossed polarisation and bright field, 280518@1639 (below):

Slide from pot pond highly birefringent organisms brightfield x20 obj 280518@1635:

Cross-polarised views of mosquito larva from pot pond

For the last few weeks, I have created myself a garden pond in a large plastic pot about 80cm across and similar height. Today, I noticed a large population of mosquito and other larvae.

I sacrificed one of these larvae today to view its structure under crossed polarisation on my LOMO Polam P-113 polarising microscope.

I had read online that muscle shows up on crossed polarisation. Certainly, the photos below show birefringence which might be muscle.

I am particularly pleased with the photo at the bottom. I managed to work out how to use layers in GIMP2 and change relative transparency between the layers and consequently combine the bright field and crossed polarisation images so that you can see where the colourful polarised tissue is located.


Bright field view of larva, x3.5 objective:

Crossed polarisation views x3.5 objective mosquito larva:

Combined bright field and crossed polar image:

The strips of birefringence follows down the side of the larval body. The photo above this one shows this follows the organism around. From http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/74993/view/mosquito-larva-light-micrograph, it would appear that this represents muscle bundles down the side of the insect.

Crossed polarisation of salt crystals

The following salt crystal is seen using x20 objective on LOMO Polam P-113 Polarising Microscope.

The crossed polarisation images required a lot longer exposure on my Bresser Mikrocam 5.0 MP microscope camera and this has shown up a lot of hot pixels.

So, for the first time ever, I took a dark frame and subtracted it from each image using PIPP software (Planetary Imaging Pre-Processor, https://sites.google.com/site/astropipp/)

You can see the effect below – it is quite dramatic!

The following is from

https://www.hamptonresearch.com/documents/product/hr007641_cg101_salt_or_protein_crystals.pdf :

“A protein crystal, unless it is cubic, will typically be weakly birefringent under cross polarizers. Salt crystals are typically strongly birefringent under cross polarizers. Some plastic plates and materials are also birefringent so this test is more easily performed and interpreted in an all-glass environment or in a plate made from a low birefringent plastic.”

The initial photos show birefringence but I would not describe them as highly birefringent…..that is until you get to the 11x objective photos at the bottom of the post – now that is a highly birefringent salt crystal!


Crossed-polarisation image x3.5 objective (dark frame subtracted in PIPP, cropped and changed to greyscale in GIMP2). The salt crystal shows birefringence:

Bright field image, x20 objective:

Crossed-polarisation images before dark frame subtraction in PIPP, x20 objective:

Same fields of view as above but this time after dark-field subtraction using PIPP, x20 objective:

x11 objective, post subtraction dark frame with PIPP – for some reason the salt crystal on top right is particularly highly birefringent (below):