Rhys Thornett

Microscopy of 2 week Petri dish culture of bacteria from hair in my armpit

This may seem a weird experiment to have done – but 2 weeks ago Ean Ean snipped off some hair from my armpit directly into a Petri dish to see what we grew. The reason for this behaviour was that my T-shirts and jumpers tend to develop a lot of holes in the armpit areas and we wondered what bacteria was doing the damage. I do have reasonably hairy armpits!

Pictures below of the bacteria we grew – they are small round bacteria – this is known as coccus (cocci in pleural).

The Gram staining (by Rhys today) shows that the bacteria are Gram Positive.

A brief internet search shows that common axillary bacteria include Corynebacterium and Propionibacterium. Another bacteria that is often present but in smaller number is Staphylococcus.

Corynebacterium is a genus of bacteria that are gram-positive and aerobic. They are bacilli, and in some phases of life they are, more particularly, club-shaped, which inspired the genus name. The principal features of the Corynebacterium genus were described by Collins and Cummins in 1986. They are gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria that are straight or slightly curved. Propionibacterium is a gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped genus of bacteria named for their unique metabolism: They are able to synthesize propionic acid by using unusual transcarboxylase enzymes. Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. Under the microscope, they appear round, and form in grape-like clusters. The Staphylococcus genus includes at least 40 species (Wikipedia).

My bacteria appear to be Staphylococci – round and blue.


Preparing sample for microscopy today:

1. The Petri dish culture – axillary (armpit) hairs are visible!

2. The spatula was used to scrape off the bacterial culture into this container and then it was mixed with small amount water:

3. Small drop put onto a slide:

4. This is then dried:


Unstained heat-fixed slide, with 63x objective:

Gram stained slide, x32 objective:


Gram stained slide, x63 objective:


Observing Log 17/11/17 @ 21:30 – 18/11/17 @ 03:00, LRO, Lichfield, Andy, Damian & Rhys

Observing Log 17/11/17 @ 21:30 – 18/11/17 @ 03:00

LRO, Lichfield

Andy, Damian & Rhys


Damian came around to my house in Lichfield for a great observing session. We both used our Orion ten-inch Dobsonian telescopes. Rhys joined us for an hour and then we continued for another 4 and a half hours.

We must really enjoy this astronomy lark! 5 and a half hours shot past as though only minutes – and this was after a long day at work and school for all of us.

Tonight’s session rates in amongst one of our best – with a number of unusual targets and the very successful use of our home-made image-intensified eyepieces – we made these years ago and had moved away from using them in favour of more “modern” equipment (video cameras) but tonight, on the Dobsonian telescopes, in a head-to-head with my Watec video camera the image-intensified eyepieces won for shear ease of use, fun and “at the eyepiece” experience – and boy were they good at helping us to observe galaxies!

I will add a post in a few minutes after this one with photographs taken through the image intensified eyepiece.


Photos below of Damian and Andy and telescopes tonight – Andy looks like he is falling asleep!





  • Orion Dobsonian 10 Telescopes x2
  • Vixen SG 2.1×42 Widefield Binoculars (Damian and I both made use of a discount at the International Astronomy Show this year to buy ourselves a pair of these amazing devices)
  • Explore Scientific and Televue Ethos eyepieces & Televue Paracorr coma correctors on both scopes.
  • Homemade image intensified eyepieces.
  • Watec 120N video camera




All objects tonight found by star-hopping, with the help of Sky Safari Pro 5 on my iPad and Damian’s Sky & Telescope Pocket Sky Atlas.


Pleiades – Messier 45, Open Cluster in Taurus,17 Nov 2017, 21:30:12, Whilst Damian aligned his laser pointer to his red dot finder on Capella in Auriga, I took the opportunity to use my new Vixen SG binoculars to observe the Pleiades – with my slight short sightedness I only see a blur with the naked eye but with these binoculars I was able to see 15 stars. Wonderful! My slight short sightedness (only about 0.75 dioptres) means I am usually reluctant to wear glasses (especially outside where I would be taking them on and off to look through an eyepiece) but it is sufficient to blur detail during naked eye observing. The Vixen SG binoculars give me back the ability to see the sky in focus and their individually focusable eyepieces allow me to compensate for the slight difference between my eyes.

Messier 37, Open Cluster in Auriga,17 Nov 2017, 21:33:28, Visible with Vixen SG binoculars with averted vision – I hope that will improve as I dark adapt. 21:36:14, Update to previous comment – I have just been able to observe M37 with direct vision through Vixen binoculars. Damian took a look himself and saw a meteor go through the field of view of the binoculars – always a spectacular sight in the Vixen SG. We then used 21mm Ethos with Paracorr to observe M37. Beautiful!


Pinwheel Cluster – Messier 36, Open Cluster in Auriga,17 Nov 2017, 21:43:27, Comparing the view in my Explore Scientific 20mm vs Damian’s Ethos 21mm the view is very similar.


Starfish Cluster – Messier 38, Open Cluster in Auriga,17 Nov 2017, 21:45:25, Another nice view of an easily seen open cluster in the Orion Dobsonian telescopes.


NGC 1907, Open Cluster in Auriga,17 Nov 2017, 21:46:02, However we preferred of this cluster to that of M38 close by. Faint but we readily saw it. Not really challenging…now this would be a good one to spot in the Vixen binoculars! Not that we saw it with these binoculars tonight!


North America Nebula – NGC 7000, Bright Nebula in Cygnus,17 Nov 2017, 21:53:03, I read the other day that nothing is brighter than the naked eye view and that magnification does not increase contrast contrary to the popular view – instead it increases the number of retinal sensory cells covered by the image and hence increases visibility. Therefore, for extended large faint objects, they are easier to observe at low magnification, as long as sufficient retinal receptors are covered. Therefore, there is an optimal magnification for each object which is the best compromise between the benefits and negative effects of magnification. For many larger objects, this optimal magnification is a lot less than many of us usually think.

I decided to put this information to the test tonight by trying to observe my nemesis – NGC 7000 – I can never see it in Lichfield. I used the Vixen SG binoculars on NGC 7000 to see if they would break my run of bad luck with this object….


22:04:47…..Success with the Vixen binoculars! NGC 7000 was elusive but definitely visible with averted vision. It popped in and out of view – lasting only a moment each time but then my eye would automatically wonder towards it and it disappeared immediately. Another wow for tonight!


IC 2149, Planetary Nebula in Auriga,17 Nov 2017, 22:06:28, Well done to Damian for finding this! Drop down from Capella to Menkalinan – slightly NE from there. Clearly blurred with 8mm Ethos, but must have been a nightmare for him to find by star-hopping tonight with his lower power eyepieces. UHC filter made it slightly clearer. We did not have access to an OIII filter tonight to compare, which is supposed to work better.


NGC 7814, Spiral Galaxy in Pegasus,17 Nov 2017, 22:20:24, Found by myself and successfully observed – a great success! Wow! Very faint in these Lichfield skies. Slight darkening. I think this is the brighter of the Pegasus cluster galaxies. I have been reading about observing this Sky and Telescope. Perhaps something really for darker skies than ours but nice to have made a foray into this group.


Crab Nebula – Messier 1, Bright Nebula in Taurus,17 Nov 2017, 22:27:27, Big! Even in 17mm Ethos.


The ‘Leaping Minnow’ asterism and the ‘Cheshire Cat’ Asterism in Auriga,17 Nov 2017, 22:40:34. Damian showed me the Leaping Minnow asterism and the Cheshire Cat Asterism in Auriga, both of which are in his presentation for RAG next week after he found references to them in previous magazine articles I’d sent him. Both of these required considerable imagination on my part to see the things they are meant to look like(!) It’ll be interesting to see what other RAG members think come the November RAG meeting!


Andromeda Galaxy – Messier 31, Spiral Galaxy in Andromeda,17 Nov 2017, 23:16:39, I tried observing this galaxy with my Watec 120 video camera and seven-inch screen. This was a failure in the Dob. I had to ask Damian for his help to track the scope on Capella whilst we tried to attain focus. Too much magnification and not enough in-focus when I tried to make use a focal reducer. Stars were shooting past the screen. Not practical.


However, the image intensified eyepieces we made years ago did well. M31 was crisp and bright (but perhaps not as impressive as we’d expected considering it relative ‘brightness’…? In fairness though, Damian pointed out the dust lanes in the ‘green’ image we were viewing which was not something easily seen through our eyepieces.


‘Mirach’s ghost’ NGC 404 a Mag 10.2 elliptical galaxy showed up better in the image intensified eyepiece than in the normal eyepiece! Damian found this fairly easily in this 17mm Ethos, even with the star in the same field of view, thankfully it was just out of the range of secondary mirror’s diffraction spikes.


NGC 752 in Triangulum – this is a big open cluster found easily with whatever we used. Damian tells me he often heads to this after all the unsuccessful attempts he has had to view M33 !


Damian found M33 using the image intensified eyepiece after trying with his 21mm Ethos and heated laser pointer. Then, averted vision with 17mm Ethos allowed us to identify its enormous size and Damian claimed he could see a part-spiral structure – he did not require Lord Rosse’s enormous scope to see it! (William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse (17 June 1800 – 31 October 1867) was an Anglo-Irish astronomer who had several telescopes built. His 72-inch telescope, built in 1845 and colloquially known as the “Leviathan of Parsonstown” was famously used to observe spiral structure in M51. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Parsons,_3rd_Earl_of_Rosse)


Almach – Gamma1 Andromedae, Double Star in Andromeda,17 Nov 2017, 23:43:32, Beautiful open pairing – a main yellow/orange with a smaller sapphire blue – Nick will be proud of us looking at double stars!


NGC 2158, Open Cluster in Gemini,17 Nov 2017, 23:46:15, ‘the more difficult ‘companion’ to M35 easily seen in both scopes. I used a little higher mag than Damian, preferring 14mm Explore Scientific to his 21mm Ethos.


IC 443, Bright Nebula in Gemini,17 Nov 2017, 23:48:10, Had a look – couldn’t see – ridiculous attempt really at mag 12 – far too faint an object for these skies. I always live in hope though that we can push the boundaries!


Orion Nebula – Messier 42, Bright Nebula in Orion,17 Nov 2017, 23:49:55, First view through branches of tree. Poor view will be better later but worth recording – at 23.45.


Little Dumbbell Nebula – Messier 76, Planetary Nebula in Perseus,18 Nov 2017, 00:00:50, Damian also found this. Really does look like a miniature version of the Dumbbell nebula M27. Bright in eyepiece. Also shows up with structure in the image intensified eyepiece.


BREAK TIME – Seasonal mulled wine (Nick would not be impressed with our consumption of alcohol… perhaps less so with the warm muffin!) After Damian had warmed his toes on the kitchen radiator, we headed back out…


Little Dumbbell Nebula – Messier 76, Planetary Nebula in Perseus,18 Nov 2017, 00:35:10, Appearing larger in the 8mm Ethos, significant structure visible.


Back to the Orion Nebula – Messier 42, Bright Nebula in Orion,18 Nov 2017, 00:36:13 how sitting between an opening in the garden trees, Very long ‘wings’ in 14mm Explore Scientific 100 degree eyepiece. Unfortunately, collimation problems showed up in my scope when I used 6mm Explore Scientific – I could only see four stars. Too much of a seagull of the stars from coma. Damian could still only see four stars with 10mm Ethos in his better collimated scope, so sky conditions had part to play here. Plenty of detail though to be had including M43 brighter region around the ‘fish mouth’.


Double Cluster – NGC 869, Open Cluster in Perseus,18 Nov 2017, 01:05:46, Do you prefer the view of the Double Cluster in 17mm Ethos or 9mm Explore Scientific? Tonight, we could see that the former resulted in a view showing more of the context of the surrounding stars, the latter left a view of spectacular diamonds (the stars) on velvet (black background). Tonight, I preferred the latter but accept it is a matter of taste. Damian went to hunt for the ‘Muscle Man Cluster’ (also in the November talk), but had forgotten just how big this asterism is so couldn’t identify him – basically the majority of Stock 2 Open Cluster!


Uranus, Planet in Pisces,18 Nov 2017, 01:16:24, Too late! By time we thought of looking at this it was behind the house.

Messier 81 & Messier 82, Galaxies in Ursa Major,18 Nov 2017, 01:21:22, Excellent view with 17mm Ethos and amazing view with image intensified eyepiece, showing detail and dust lanes in the Cigar Galaxy. Incredible!



We also had a go at the RAG November ‘Christmas Night Sky Challenge’ (regurgitated Damian tells me from his 2015 talk!)….


Messier 108, Spiral Galaxy in Ursa Major,18 Nov 2017, 01:23:00, Also showed up nicely in image intensified eyepiece. In the Ethos eyepiece, it was a much fainter slash – significantly more difficult to find using normal eyepiece than with the image intensified eyepiece. Conversely, the close-by Owl Nebula M97) was much more obvious with the Ethos eyepiece and significantly fainter in the image intensified eyepiece – interesting how different objects respond differently to different modalities of observation.


Eskimo Nebula – NGC 2392, Planetary Nebula in Gemini,18 Nov 2017, 01:38:38, Suddenly expanded in size when we looked away from it (averted vision) then shrank down again when we looked directly at it (direct vision) in 17mm Ethos – this was quite a profound effect. With the 8mm Ethos, it was very fuzzy and Damian noted two shells around this planetary nebula, and some hints of detail within these shells. The 10mm Ethos showed a slightly different appearance emphasising the two layers at the expense of loss other detail. I am quite excited that I found this object first – although the truth is that I was helped by having seen it in the past with Nick using GOTO scopes, so I was aware of what it looked like and recognised it as I panned past it with a lower power finder eyepiece. This was perhaps the biggest and brightest of the ‘fuzzy stellar-like planetary nebulae’ that we observed this session.


The festive… Christmas Tree Cluster – NGC 2264, Open Cluster in Monoceros,18 Nov 2017, 01:53:41, First time seen this upright just like its name! Seeing this tonight makes me feel that Christmas is coming soon. Big object, fills a good portion of a 17mm Ethos.


Damian informed me of another addition to his November presentation build, Hubble’s Variable Nebula – NGC 2261, Bright Nebula in Monoceros,18 Nov 2017, 01:59:13, I am proud! I found this using the 17mm Ethos when Damian had more difficulty! It is usually the other way around (Damian is significantly better at star-hopping that I am) so hence my excitement. I did use his scope though, after I had tripped over his power pack and injured my shin – Damian would say, “Only you, Andrew!” (it looked pretty bad to be honest after we had finished for the night – taken a lump of skin off, ouch! – Damian).


Damian notes here: he was in the correct vicinity and just needed the more detailed SkySafari map to find the nebula (which was also his suggestion!). He’s also ‘not great’ at star hopping, but a nice low magnification/wide-field eyepiece, sky map/red head lamp  and heated laser pointer all flatter his supposed ‘skills’!


We also looked at Hubble’s Variable Nebula in the image intensified eyepiece and found that it was visible there but the view was better in the Ethos eyepiece. With the 10mm Ethos, the nebula is clearly triangular. Similarly, in 17mm, the triangular shape is obvious – like a fat tailed comet.


Beehive Cluster – Messier 44, Open Cluster in Cancer, 18 Nov 2017, 02:31:50, Vixen SG binoculars made it a breeze to find this. Large ‘smudge’ in Cancer.


Messier 101, Spiral Galaxy in Ursa Major,18 Nov 2017, 02:36:26, Amazingly I think I could just see this with Vixen 2.1x binoculars by averted vision – although very faint and the view in this direction was where light pollution was maximal, so I am not 100% sure of this observation.


NGC 2903, Spiral Galaxy in Leo,18 Nov 2017, 02:37:26, Just to the SW of the

inverted questionmark that forms the head of Leo . Good view in eyepiece and image intensified eyepiece. Lesson from tonight: image intensifiers work well on galaxies, and provide an alternative to filters which do not work well on galaxies but better on nebulae.


Whirlpool Galaxy – Messier 51, Spiral Galaxy in Canes Venatici,18 Nov 2017, 02:40:54,

02:46. Damian asked me to find it then in the scope, still fitted with the image intensified eyepiece. For the first time I used this device to actually locate and then view the galaxy – just two faint cores, no ‘bridge’ visible linking them.


I saw a fantastic bright meteor coming out of Gemini with a persistent trail.


03:00. Called the session to a halt as a large bank of cloud rolled in and covered the sky.



Live and stained microscopy (H&E and gram staining) of bacteria in single culture from previously taken mouth swab from Hannah 5/11/2017

Today, was Hannah’s turn. Both children prepared slides from the culture we have grown from a swab taken a couple weeks back, stained with H&E and Gram stains and viewed live, H&E, and Gram stained samples under the microscope using x4, x20, x32 objectives. For some reason, we weren’t able to obtain focus with the 63x objective today – not sure why!

Our conclusion – Hannah has Gram positive rods in her mouth, most likely Actinomyces, possibly Actinmyces Israelii.

Actinomyces israelii is a species of Gram-positive, strict anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. It is known to live commensally on and within humans in the mouth, vagina and colon, A. israelii is an opportunistic pathogen. It was named after the German Surgeon, James Adolf Israel (1848–1926), who studied the organism for the first time in 1878 (Wikipedia).

Andy, Rhys and Hannah

Rhys and Hannah made these slides:

Microscopy-culture-form-Hannahs-mouth-051117-x4-obj-live-sample (below):

Microscopy culture form Hannahs mouth 051117 x20 obj live sample Ph1 (Phase contrast gave much better view than non-phase live images, although bacteria could be seen in both – in Phase contrast the bacteria appear dark as if stained (below):

Microscopy-culture-form-Hannahs-mouth-051117-x32-obj-live-sample-Ph1 (below):

Microscopy-culture-form-Hannahs-mouth-051117-x32-obj-Gram stain (the first one also has Phase annulus 1 in place, 2nd photo does not. In theory phase contrast should not be used on these samples but we found today it did enhance the image by darkening the background and improving contrast). It is clear that this bacterium is Gram positive (blue) and consists of rods:

Microscopy-culture-form-Hannahs-mouth-051117-x32-obj-H&E stain – again first image also has Phase annulus 1 in place and next two do not. Although the pictures look similar, the stains are not staining the same things. H&E stains nuclei and membranes blue and cytoplasm pink regardless of Gram staining characteristics. Some bacteria are Gram positive (blue) others are Gram negative (pink):


Determining magnification for photographs taken with Bresser MikrOkular camera through Zeiss IM microscope

Rhys and I used a calibration slide to determine the on-screen magnification of images taken through the Zeiss IM microscope with different objectives using Bresser MikrOkular camera.

6×0.01mm horizontally = 0.06mm
4.5×0.01mm vertically = 0.045mm.
On my laptop (Dell M4800) one of my photos through the MikrOkular appears at 290mmx170mm in size.
Hence the magnification in this image = 290/0.06 = 4833 x magnification (calculated on basis horizontal size)
Or 170/0.045 = 3778 x magnification (calculation on basis vertical size).
The difference is probably explained by either unequal pixel sizes on screen or part photo cut off (probably vertically) on screen.
Taking an averge magnification = (4833+3778)/2 = 4300x magnification
Hence magnifications using MikrOkular camera are:
(i) 4x objective = 273x
(ii) 10x objective = 680x
(iii) 20x objective = 1360x
(iv) 32x objective = 2180x
(v) 40x objective = 2730x
(vi) 63x objective = 4300x

For future posts, the magnification using MikrOkular camera can be calculated using a magnification factor = Magnification calculated as MikrOkular camera & screen magnification factor 68 (=4300/63). To calculate magnification = magnification factor x objective magnification. For example, for 32x objective with MikrOkular camera, on screen magnification will be 68×32=2176 (approx).

Andy & Rhys

Calibration images taken using 63x objective – the lines are 0.01mm apart from each other:

Fluorescein dye microscopy of culture of Rhys’ mouth swab 29/10/2017

I tried again to use fluorescein 1% dye on a microscopy specimen today. I heat fixed a slide of the culture of Rhys’ mouth and soaked it in fluorescein dye for 10 minutes. I washed off the excess, added coverslip and looked at under the microscope. For this experiment, I used epi-illumination with the LED illuminator a second hand fluorescence filter block I obtained from ebay recently.

Pictures below – not sure what they show though!


Following is a non-stained live image of Rhys’ mouth culture through the Zeiss IM microscope with 63x objective as reminder of what is in the Petri dish culture used for this fluorescence experiment (this is NOT a fluorescence image):

Fluorescence image using fluorescein dye x4 objective (below). I am not sure what the darker blotches represent. This is a low magnification image so they do not represent individual bacteria but more likely large masses from the smear I took off the Petri dish using a needle. I had difficulty attaching the illuminator to the epi-illumination port today and it ended up slightly angled – hence the darker colouration to the left of this picture.

Fluorescence image using fluorescein dye x4 objective (below). The following two images look impressive but I suspect they are only of air bubbles!

Fluorescence image using fluorescein dye x20 objective (below). I have increased the magnification. The MikrOkular was able to show some detail, which is what was used for these photos. I also tried the Mikrocam but it was not sensitive enough. Again, I do not know what the darker patches represent. Far too low magnification for any features within bacterial cells (see size of individual cells in 63x image at start of this post):

Fluorescence image using fluorescein dye x32 objective (below). The highest magnification I could achieve and still see any detail. For this one, I had to stretch the image in GIMP2 and sharpen it. Again – what the features are I do not know. They vary in size from small ones, about the size of a bacterium to larger ones.

Visit to Tech Dome and the PIXO observatory at Komtar in George Town, Penang

Visit to Tech Dome and the associated PIXO observatory in Komtar, George Town, Penang.

Rhys and I visited Tech Dome and the PIXO observatory there today at the personal invitation of Dr Chong Hon Yew, the president of the Astronomical Society of Penang. He gave us a guided tour of the observatory and we also spent several pleasurable hours in TechDome itself. Tech Dome is a science discovery centre with plenty of excellent educational exhibits, which cover relevant science concepts up to GCSE level. It really is a good resource and worth its rather exhorbitant entry fee of RM 50 per person (around £13 each). I personally preferred to it our own ThinkTank in Birmingham.

A fair number of the exhibits were relevant to astronomy and I have included some photos of these below.
Dr Yew played a key role in setting up the observatory – he is quite inspirational, following in the footsteps of people like John Dobson in the states, believing that the best way to encourage the public to get interested in astronomy is to take large telescopes to where they are, rather than expect them to come out to dark sky sights – and give them a wow experience they will next forget. So, to this end, he has raised funds for some excellent scopes and mounts (see photos) covering day and night, and actively encorages young people to take on leadership roles in the group. The observatory has a magnification space with roll off roof and seminar room and a view of Komtar rising above it. They also have a large Lunt solar telescope and CCD imaging facilities and Rhys and I were fortunate to observe a number of excellent images taken by one of their members. These included one that they believe is to largest (pixel-wise) ever taken in Malaysia and there is a picture of Rhys and Dr Yew standing next to this photo below as well.

If you ever come to Penang, do take the chance to visit the observatory and Tech Dome and to contact Dr Yew and say Hi – you will be welcomed with open arms and perhaps have a chance to see the southern sky in all its glory!


Penang PIXO Observatory’s large Officina telescope on Paramount mount:

A view in the PIXO Observatory (below):

The observatory’s roll off roof:

Dr Yew explains solar photography to Rhys:

The sign outside the observatory:

Dr Yew and Rhys stand next to (probably) the largest (in pixel size) image of the Moon ever taken:

Rhys stands next to the observatory computer:

Dr Yew and Andrew/Rhys next to the inauguration plaque for the observatory:

The observatory’s seminar room:

Members of the Astronomical Society of Penang observe from this paved area next to the observatory. It is four stories high. They use this for night time observing and also for daytime solar observing.

There is also a dark sky site owned by one of the members where we will be going tonight to observe the meteor shower.

The following pictures are from Tech Dome and of relevance to astronomy.

Rhys plays old style space invaders on an arcade machine, like those we grew up with in our youth!

They are yellow bugs – but they are also programmable robots and Rhys is programming them here to get around a maze. Future space missions with be increasingly dependent on autonomous machines.

I am standing next to an information poster on the Astronomical Society of Penang:

Other astronomy-related astronomy exhibits at Tech Dome:

The following is a very effective exhibit – using many compasses and a central bar magnet it demonstrates magnetic fields like those around the Earth or Jupiter, that deviate solar wind away from the Earth and towards its poles, creating the aurorae:

What can Rhys and I see in the night sky in Penang?

If we do manage to find a clear night for some observing whilst here in Penang, then there will be a chance for us observe parts of the sky normally inaccessible in Staffordshire.

The screenshots from Sky Safari Pro 5 show the night sky as visible from here and some of the sights we might be able to observe. Many of these are old favourites from the UK but others are not visible in Lichfield, such as the SMC and LMC.